Lysis Buffer Recipe For Protein Extraction

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Cell Lysis Buffer

Plant Tissue Cell Lysis Solutions

Plant cells are notoriously difficult to lyse and extract for proteomics work due to their tough cell walls and substantial polysaccharide content. The Thermo Scientific Pierce Plant Total Protein Extraction kit is composed of optimized buffers and filter cartridges that allow for efficient and rapid protein extraction in less than 10 minutes. The method has been validated for use with multiple plan organs multiple plant species and fresh, frozen, and dehydrated tissue sources. The protein extracts can be used for applications such as SDS-PAGE, western blotting, immunoprecipitation, affinity purification, and activity assays.

Cell Lysis: The First Step In The Extraction Of Molecules And Structures

In most purification protocols for nucleic acids, proteins, membranes, or organelles, the first step is usually cell lysis. The type of lysis buffer used depends on the types and source of cells, the desired final molecule or structure, and the level of their functionality. The protocols and lysis buffers for proteins are generally different from the lysis buffers used for nucleic acids.

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How To Prepare Lysis Buffer For Different Types Of Dna Extraction Methods

Cell lysis is one of the critical steps in DNA extraction. The process to break a cell wall or nuclear membrane using chemical, physical or enzymatic methods is known as cell lysis or lysis.

Cell lysis is a must! I mean, without lysing a cell, we cant isolate DNA. DNA isolation or DNA extraction is a process to extract or obtain DNA from cells. Usually, we use various chemicals or a combination of chemicals to do this. If you wish to learn more about DNA extraction you can read our previous articles .

Coming to the point, different cell types have different extraction methods. For plant, animal, bacteria and blood DNA extraction, the process varies and so the composition of lysis buffer too. Also, the cell type differ as well, for example, plants have a thick pectin rich cell wall while bacterial has an only cell membrane.

So Practically, a more aggressive cell lysis method is needed in the case of plant DNA extraction. The present article explains the preparation of lysis buffer for different types of DNA extraction methods and its importance too.

The image represents the general outline of how DNA extracted from the cell.

In addition, we also give you a perfect recipe to prepare lysis buffer for animal, plant, bacterial and other DNA extraction protocols. Now lets start the article.

Key Topics:

Lysis Buffer For Nucleic Acids

Cell Lysis Buffer Recipe Protein Purification

Lysing cells for extraction of nucleic acids is in some ways much easier than extraction of proteins. Nucleic acids are much more resistant to denaturation than most proteins, so a denaturing lysis buffer can be used. The type of lysis buffer depends on the type of nucleic acid, such as genomic, mitochondrial, or plasmid DNA, and total or a subtraction of RNA, as well as the cell source.

Obtaining intact RNA is more exacting than isolating DNA, due to the presence of RNases. Cell lysis buffer for RNA extraction is highly denaturing and is usually composed of phenol and guanidine isothiocyanate. RNase inhibitors are usually present in the lysis buffer, since RNases can be very resistant to denaturation and remain active.

For extraction of DNA the lysis buffer will commonly contain SDS. In most kits for plasmid extraction, the buffer will contain sodium hydroxide as well as SDS, for alkaline lysis. The addition of potassium acetate to this lysis buffer allows renaturation of the plasmid DNA but not the bacterial DNA, which precipitates.

Since cell lysis and extraction of nucleic acids are not subject to as many variables as for proteins, most nucleic acid extraction can be done with one of a few kits. The kits typically contain a cell lysis buffer and an appropriate nucleic acidbinding matrix.

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Yeast Cell Lysis Solutions

Thermo Scientific Y-PER Yeast Protein Extraction Reagent penetrates the tough yeast cell wall, perforating the cell wall and membrane and extracting soluble protein without completely damaging overall cell structure. Traditionally, yeast protein extraction required mechanical disruption with glass beads, making small-scale extraction difficult. Y-PER reagent provides higher yields and greater flexibility for use in current proteomics workflows.

Two formulations are available depending on the downstream application. Y-PER reagent is high salt and is effective for S. cerevisiae, S. pombe, C. albicans, and P. pastoris . Although the detergent is compatible with various downstream methods, it is not dialyzable, so it cannot be removed in cases where incompatibility exists. Thermo Scientific Y-PER Plus Dialyzable Yeast Protein Extraction Reagent is a phosphate-free, low-salt formulation with a dialyzable detergent, validated for use primarily with S. cerevisiae.

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Preparation Of Lysis Buffer For Plasmid Dna Extraction:

Plasmids are smaller viral DNA circular in nature and present in a little amount. Though it is easy to extract plasmid DNA, I personally recommended using a ready-to-use plasmid DNA extraction kit. Or for manual processes, you can use TE buffer for lysis.

You can read our previous article on TE buffer to get more information on the present topic: Importance of Tris-EDTA buffer in DNA extraction.

Breaking The Code Of Lysis Buffer:

Lysis Buffer | Cell Lysis Buffer | Choosing A Lysis Buffer |

We have given a concentration of lysis buffer for different types of DNA extraction methods, but that isnt enough! The objective to write this article is that can you prepare your own lysis buffer for the DNA extraction method you use?

Lets check it out

First, understand the importance and role of every chemical used in DNA extraction as well as cell wall lysis. Now, lets decode the puzzle of lysis buffer. Firstly, understand which chemicals are most common? Tris and EDTA, right!

Tris and EDTA are two main chemicals or a foundation in any DNA extraction procedure. We had covered an interesting article on Tris- EDTA buffer. Please first read the article here: importance of Tris-EDTA buffer in DNA extraction.

In short, Tris maintains the constant pH and EDTA chelates the metal ion and inactivates DNase and RNase. So when you prepare any lysis buffer first include tris and EDTA. The concentration is given above.

Secondly, we have to degrade the proteins present in the cell membrane and nuclear membrane. Commercially available detergents can do that such as SDS and CTAB. Try one or two concentrations and use your own or I had given the concentration above, somewhere.

Third, use of some salts. MgCl2 protects DNA by blocking the negative charge of the lipoproteins and salts such as NaCl and KCl neutralize the charges on DNA and helps DNA to pull out. So that must also be included in the recipe.

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Storage Of Ripa Lysis Buffer

Store RIPA lysis buffer solution in the fridge for relatively short periods .

Sometimes the detergents in the RIPA lysis buffer may re-precipitate over time. If this happens, heat the solution and mix to dissolve the components.

For longer storage periods, aliquot and store RIPA lysis buffer in the freezer . Thaw aliquots with gentle heat and mix the components back into solution. Do not re-freeze once thawed.

Preparation Of Samples For Loading Into Gels

Denatured, reduced samples

Antibodies typically recognize a small portion of the protein of interest and this domain may reside within the 3D conformation of the protein. To enable access of the antibody to this portion it is necessary to unfold the protein, ie denature it.

To denature, use a loading buffer with the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate , and boil the mixture at 95100°C for 5 min. Heating at 70°C for 510 min is also acceptable and may be preferable when studying multi-pass membrane proteins. These tend to aggregate when boiled and the aggregates may not enter the gel efficiently.

The standard loading buffer is called 2X Laemmli buffer . It can also be made at 4X and 6X strength to minimize dilution of the samples. The 2X is to be mixed in 1:1 ratio with the sample.

2x Laemmli buffer recipe

  • 0.125 M Tris HCl
  • Check the pH and bring it to pH 6.8

When SDS is used with proteins, all of the proteins become negatively charged by their attachment to the SDS anions. SDS binds to proteins fairly specifically in a mass ratio of 1.4:1. In doing so, SDS confers a negative charge to the polypeptide in proportion to its length. Denatured polypeptides become rods of negative charge with equal charge densities per unit length. Therefore, migration is determined by molecular weight, rather than by the intrinsic charge of the polypeptide.

During protein sample treatment the sample should be mixed by vortexing before and after the heating step for best resolution.

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How Do I Choose A Lysis Buffer And Make A Cell Lysis Buffer

The lysis buffer you need depends on what materials you are interested in extracting from the cell. There are several components to consider for your cell lysis buffer such as pH, salts, detergents, whether or not to use protease inhibitors, To make the cell lysis buffer you will want to choose a buffer that is compatible with your protein, usually Tris-HCl or HEPES-NaOH, which have different pH ranges that also need to be considered. You can also use salts such as NaCl or KCl to increase the ionic strength of your buffer, which will disrupt molecular interactions. Detergents come in varying strengths and are chosen based on whether extracted proteins need to be denatured or not. Sodium dodecyl sulfate is an ionic detergent that is strong enough to solubilize proteins and denature them. A weaker detergent such as NP-40 can be used to solubilize proteins but not denature them. Lastly, a protease inhibitor is included when there is danger of proteases cleaving your protein of interest.

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    The Cell Lysis Buffer Must Disrupt Membrane Chemistry But Preserve Target Molecules

    The type of lysis buffer used is dictated by the goal of the experiment. However, most cell lysis buffers will contain a detergent that disrupts the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. If the experimentalgoal requires preservation of tertiary protein structure, such as a co-ip, then the cell lysis buffer needs to be non-denaturing. Non-denaturing buffers typically contain a non-ionic detergent like NP-40 or Triton X-100. These are surfactants, basically soaps, that disrupt the fatty acid bilayer. These non-denaturing buffers will have low salt concentrations, usually less than 120 mM NaCl. However, some salt is needed to prevent non-specific protein interactions. EDTA is a common additive that has multiple functions including protease inhibition and protection against oxidative damage. Tris is another additive used to buffer the pH and prevent protein denaturation.

    Detergent free lysis buffers are available for lysis protocols including some type of mechanical disruption of the cell or tissue. Common techniques for mechanical disruption include sonication and vortexing.

    Sometimes a denaturing buffer is required to extract proteins. If this is the case then SDS and sodium-deoxycholate detergents are included in the cell lysis buffer. Denaturing detergents will sometimes include heating to 95ºC.

    Lysis Buffer For Proteins And Organelles

    There are a number of different types of lysis buffer for protein extraction. The type of lysis buffer used depends on the cell source , and whether the cells are in a structure and the type of structure. For instance, lysis of cells in tissue culture is much easier than lysis of cells in a tissue with a high level of contractile proteins such as skeletal muscle.

    One thing that most lysis buffers for proteins have in common is the addition of protease inhibitors. After cell lysis, proteases are no longer carefully regulated, compartmentalized, and trafficked. Proteins in lysis buffer become targets for free proteases. Proteins that are sensitive to one or more types of proteases can become rapidly fragmented. Therefore, typically a cell lysis buffer will have a cocktail of protease inhibitors. If dephosphorylation is a concern, phosphatase inhibitors are also added to the lysis buffer.

    Most lysis buffers for extraction of proteins, membranes, and organelles contain one or more detergents. The choice of detergent is usually determined empirically and depends on the protein and the tissue source. Generally the mildest detergent that is effective is used to maintain maximal functionality, and in the case of membranes and organelles, to keep the membrane intact. Detergents commonly found in cell lysis buffers are generally nonionic or zwitterionic, such as CHAPS, deoxycholate, Triton X-100, NP40, and Tween 20.

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    Insect Cell Lysis Solutions

    Thermo Scientific I-PER Insect Cell Protein Extraction Reagent enables gentle extraction of soluble protein from baculovirus-infected insect cells grown in suspension of monolayer culture . The reagent maintains functionality of extracted proteins and is directly compatible with downstream applications, such as protein assays, western blotting, and His-tagged protein purification .

    Total Protein Extraction By Ripa

    DNA Extraction – Lysis buffer

    Protein extraction from tissues and cultured cells is the first step for many biochemical and analytical techniques such as protein purification, western blotting, as well as mass spectrometry. There is still no universal set of method or regent that is optimal for protein extraction due to the chemical/physical heterogeneity of proteins and their sample sources. Some factors should be taken into account when handling proteins such as sample types, subcellular locations of the protein, the compatibility of the protein as well as downstream applications. Here we provide a protocol for total protein extraction based on RIPA which is widely used.

    • All reagents and instruments must be pre-cold to reduce protein degradation.
    • Extract total protein quickly and efficiently.
    • Add 10 µL sodium orthovanadate solution and 10 µL protease inhibitor cocktail solution per 1 mL of RIPA lysis buffer before use to prevent proteolysis and maintain phosphorylation of proteins.
    • Protein production should be store at -80°C.


    • PBS: Dissolve 8 g NaCl, 0.2 g KCl, 1.15 g Na2HPO4 and 0.2 g KH2PO4 in 800 mL distilled water. Adjust the PH to 7.4 with HCl and final volume to 1 liter with additional distilled H2O.
    • RIPA lysis buffer: 50 mM Tris-HCl , 150 mM NaCl, 1mM EDTA, 1% NP-40, 1% Na-deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS, sterile-filtered.
    • Protease and phosphatase inhibitors: Protease inhibitor cocktail and sodium orthovanadate.


    • Plastic cell scraper for adherent cells
    • Microcentrifuge tube


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    Lysis Buffer Recipe For Protein Extraction

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